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Innocents Database

Browse the Innocents Database by LAST name
 
The database index is sorted by LAST names. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.


Browse the Innocents Database by LOCATION of conviction

The database index is sorted by the LOCATION where a person was convicted. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.

Browse the Innocents Database by YEAR of exoneration

The database index is sorted by the YEAR of a person's exoneration. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.



5,139 Cases Currently Listed in the Innocents Database

There are cases from 111 countries.

3,015 cases are from the United States

2,124 cases are from a country other than the U.S.

545 people were sentenced to death.

889 people were sentenced to life in prison.

1,862 people were convicted of a homicide related crime.

806 people were convicted of a sexual assault related crime.

173 people were posthumously exonerated by a court or a pardon.

The Innocents Database includes persons whose presumption of innocence was restored after their conviction was overturned on direct appeal or post-conviction appeal and they were not retried, persons acquitted after a retrial, and persons granted an executive or legislative pardon based on evidence of their innocence. The sources of information include official court reports, books, and newspaper and magazine articles. Each person's record in the database includes one or more sources for the information about the person's case. For a detailed explanation of the cases included in the Innocents Database see the article "An Exoneration Can Be Judicial Or By Executive Or Legislative Clemency," online at, http://justicedenied.org/wordpress/archives/2811 .

If you have a question, suggestion, or correction, email innocents@forejustice.org




Information About The Cases By Range Of Years And Categories Of Convictions
(Includes the 5,139 cases in the database as of November 28, 2014)

 The chart lists the total U.S. cases with no brackets, and the total non-U.S. cases in brackets (  ).
Year of Exoneration
Homicide related*
Homicide & Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault,  Rape, or Indecent Assault Child Sexual Assault, Abuse, or Cruelty Robbery, Theft, Burglary, or Extortion
Assault
Drug
Fraud, Forgery, Embezzelment,  or Bribery
Child Abuse/Assault (non-sexual)
Violent (other)* Non-violent (other)*
Total
Prior to 1900
14 (10)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 1 (2) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 26 (4)
43 (18)
1900-1904
1 (2)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
2 (4)
1905-1909 8 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 1 (0)
10 (2)
1910-1914
8 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 0 (1)
0 (0) 1 (1)
0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 10 (4)
1915-1919 11 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (0) 18 (0)
1920-1924
25 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (0)
0 (0) 0 (1)
1 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 31 (1)
1925-1929 17 (2)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 15 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 34 (4)
1930-1934
24 (1)
0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 11 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
37 (3)
1935-1939 10 (0)
0 (0) 7 (0) 0 (0) 6 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 2 (0) 1 (2)
27 (2)
1940-1944
27 (0)
0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 8 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (3)
37 (3)
1945-1949 19 (0)
0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 4 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 1 (0)
26 (1)
1950-1954
21 (1)
1 (0) 5 (0)
0 (0) 7 (3)
0 (1) 2 (0)
4 (0)
0 (0) 1 (2) 2 (2)
43 (9)
1955-1959 16 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
0 (0) 7 (0)
0 (3) 1 (0)
2 (0) 0 (0) 14 (1) 3 (0)
45 (5)
1960-1964
11 (5)
0 (0) 0 (0)
0 (0) 7 (16)
0 (2)
1 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0) 0 (8)
55 (2)
73 (33)
1965-1969 15 (1) 0 (0) 6 (1) 0 (0) 1 (11)
0 (4) 1 (3) 1 (2) 0 (0) 3 (3) 6 (5)
33 (30)
1970-1974
16 (3)
0 (0)
1 (0) 0 (0)
2 (5)
1 (0)
0 (0) 3 (0) 0 (0) 5 (1)
7 (4)
34 (13)
1975-1979 61 (7) 1 (1)
1 (0)
0 (0) 2 (1)
0 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
4 (1)
72 (10)
1980-1984
47 (10)
3 (0)
10 (1)
0 (0) 3 (3)
1 (0)
0 (0)
6 (0) 0 (0) 1 (13)
3 (11)
74 (37)
1985-1989
94 (15)
0 (0)
5 (0)
2 (0)
6 (1)
2 (1)
1 (0)
12 (0)
0 (0) 1 (3)
5 (6)
128 (25)
1990-1994
91 (37)
7 (1)
32 (2)
22 (0)
20 (4)
7 (3)
2 (1)
7 (0)
0 (0) 3 (2) 13 (5)
180 (55)
1995-1999
88 (48)
14 (0)
50 (13)
24 (2)
16 (7)
10 (1)
8 (3)
12 (1)
1 (1)
4 (9) 11 (7)
234 (92)
2000-2004
195 (91)
16 (2)
93 (45)
29 (4)
22 (40)
12 (11)
62 (17)
13 (12)
2 (3)
16 (21) 27 (100)
474 (345)
2005-2009
159 (166)
23 (6)
96 (95)
33 (22)
51 (57)
17 (62)
60 (45)
24 (45)
4 (0)
58 (93) 123 (108)
645 (702)
2010-2013 157 (113)
20 (12) 74 (40)
27 (12)
33 (30)
14 (14)
53 (19)
28 (34)
2 (0) 30 (76) 70 (161)
497 (507)
2014*
49 (34)
3 (2)
9 (10)
6 (8)
3 (9)
4 (5)
16 (3)
6 (4)
4 (0) 9 (25) 20 (78)
88 (151)
Unknown date
7 (12)
0 (0) 4 (4)
2 (2)
1 (6)
1 (2)
5 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0) 1 (3)
0 (4)
21 (32)
Total cases
U.S. only
Non-U.S.
1,750
1,191
559
112
88
24
610
398
212
196
145
51
430
231
199
180
70
110
306
214
92
229
126
103
17
13
4
419
152
267
890
387
503
5,139
3,015 2,124
U.S. cases
1989-2014*
764
83
355
142
147
64
202
91
13
120
265
2,246
U.S. cases 1989-2014*
Years incarerated before exoneration
11.8 years 16.1
12.2
7.5
6.5
4.0
3.1
2.1
3.3
2.8
2.1
9.4
Years avg. for all types
Non-U.S.
1989-2014*
497
23
205
48
148
96
88
96
4
226
464
1,895
All non-U.S.  cases 1989-2014*
Years incarerated before exoneration
7.8 years
12.1
3.3
2.2
4.2
1.6
2.5
1.4
5.8
4.5
1.5
5.3
Years avg. for all types
U.S. cases
through 1988
420
5
39
1
83
5
7
35
0
31
122
748
U.S. cases through 1988
Years incarerated before exoneration
6.1 years
8.5 7.3 2.0 3.4 3.0
0.8
1.4
0
1.8
0.4
5.4
Non-U.S. cases through 1988
50
1
3
1
45
12
4
7
0
38
35
198
Non-U.S. cases through 1988
Years incarerated before exoneration
6.6 years 10
4.8
0.5
1.5
1.2
0.3
2.0
0
2.4
1.2
3.1
United Kingdom only cases 1989-2014* years incarerated before exoneration
9.8 years
20.0
4.4
2.5
4.0
1.0
2.1
1.7
5.3
1.5
3.2
7.0
Years avg. for all types
United Kingdom only cases up to 1997
years incarerated before exoneration
8.5 years
0
7.8
0
0.8
1.1
0.1
2.0
0
1.4
2.9
4.0
Years avg. for all types
United Kingdom only under CCRC 1997-2014*
years incarerated before exoneration
9.3 years
20.0
4.0
2.5
3.9
1.2
2.1
1.7
5.3
1.4
3.3
6.4
Years avg. for all types
* Includes cases entered in the database through November 28, 2014.
* The "Homicide" category includes all cases involving a person found responsible for a death, including first and second degree murder,  voluntary and involuntary manslaughter, vehicular homicide, etc.








* Includes all crimes involving violence or the threat of violence not included in any other category.
* Includes all crimes involving no violence or no threat of violence not included in any other category.
















U.S. cases by year of exoneration & sex
Year Total Male Female Sex  unknown
1607 1 1    
1608 1 1    
1711 24 7 17  
1712 1 0 1  
1820 2 2    
1851 1 1    
1872 1 1    
1884 1 1    
1893 3 3    
1895 1 1    
1896 1 1    
1897 2 1
1

1898 3 3    
1900 1 1    
1902 1 1    
1906 3 3    
1907 3 3    
1908 2 2    
1909 2 1 1  
1911 3 3    
1912 2 2    
1913 2 2    
1914 3 3    
1915 1 1    
1916 11 10   1
1918 6 6    
1920 4 4    
1921 10 10    
1922 4 4    
1923 9 9    
1924 4 4    
1925 2 2    
1926 10 10    
1927 2 2    
1928 13 12 1  
1929 7 6 1  
1930 16 16    
1931 8 8    
1932 5 5    
1933 4 4    
1934 4 4    
1935 5 4 1  
1936 8 7 1
 
1937 7 7    
1938 3 3  
 
1939 4 4    
1940 10 10    
1941 2 2    
1942 7 7    
1943 4 4    
1944 14 14    
1945 5 4 1  
1946 8 6 2  
1947 4 4    
1948 4 4    
1949 5 4 1  
1950 10 10    
1951 13 10 3  
1952 6 6    
1953 7 7    
1954 7 6 1  
1955 2 2    
1956 7 6 1  
1957 23 18 5  
1958 5 5    
1959 8 8    
1960 3 3    
1961 46 22 8 16 
1962 6 6    
1963 10 10    
1964 9 9    
1965 7 7    
1966 3 3    
1967 2 2    
1968 10 10    
1969 11 11    
1970 3 3    
1971 3 3    
1972 10 10    
1973 7 7    
1974 12 12    
1975 24 24    
1976 10 8 2  
1977 12 11 1  
1978 17 15 2  
1979 10 9 1  
1980 20 16
1981 12 12    
1982 13 12  
1983 16 14 2  
1984 13 13    
1985 16 16    
1986 29 28   1
1987 22 21 1  
1988 29 28 1  
1989 32 31 1  
1990 35 31 4  
1991 47 35 9
1992 42 36 1
1993 42 34 6
1994 38 32 5
1995 38 32 5
1996 54 49 5  
1997 49 44 5  
1998 41 33 8  
1999 56 49 7  
2000 97 89 8  
2001 99 90 9  
2002 76 69 7  
2003 123 108 15  
2004 92 81 10
2005 78 69 8 1
2006 169 155 13  
2007 130 122 8  
2008 123 108 15  
2009 148 134 14  
2010 128 114 12 2
2011 105 94 10 1
2012 136 119 16
2013 139 123 16  
2014* 129 102 24  
Unknown 21 21 0
Total 3,015 2,673 302 33
* As of November 28, 2014



U.S. cases by state or territory where conviction occurred
(Date is when exoneration occurred. Federal court cases listed below separate from state court cases.)
State court cases Unknown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Total
Alabama
19 28 46
Alaska

3
2
5
Arizona

2
19
21
Arkansas
8
8
16
California 2
57
193
252
Colorado

2
7
9
Connecticut

3
21
24
Deleware



0
District of Columbia

8
11
19
Florida

38
76
114
Georgia
1
18
32
51
Hawaii 1

4
5
Idaho
1
3
4
Illinois

37
159
196
Indiana
7
38
45
Iowa 1
2
18
21
Kansas
3
5
8
Kentucky
5
16
21
Maine
4
4
8
Maryland 1
8
27
36
Massachusetts
43
61
104
Michigan
23
67
90
Minnesota
6
17
23
Mississippi
7
17
24
Missouri
8
39
47
Montana
0
83
83
Louisiana
23
48
71
Nebraska

3
9
12
Nevada
6
12
18
New Hampshire

0
5
5
New Jersey

25
22
47
New Mexico

7
4
11
New York
3
140
227
370
North Carolina
1
13
42
56
North Dakota

0
3
3
Ohio 1
22
64
87
Oklahoma
6
33
39
Oregon
6
25
31
Pennsylvania
21
55
76
Rhode Island

0
6
6
South Carolina

38
13
51
South Dakota

0
5
5
Tennessee 1
2
22
25
Texas 5
18
214
237
Utah 2
1
15
18
Vermont
2
3
5
Virginia
14
51
65
Washington
6
76
82
West Virginia

3
17
20
Wisconsin

7
42
49
Wyoming
0
5
5
Federal cases
(With location of where the conviction originated)

Unkown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Total
Alabama federal cases
0
7
7
Arizona federal cases
0
8
8
California federal cases
20
29
49
Connecticut federal cases
0
4
4
District of Columbia federal cases
4
10
14
Florida federal cases
4
13
17
Georgia federal cases

0
3
3
Hawaii federal cases

0
1
1
Indiana federal cases

0
1
1
Illinois federal cases

5
6
11
Kansas federal cases

0
2
2
Kentucky federal cases

1
1
2
Louisiana federal cases

1
6
7
Maryland federal cases

6
0
6
Massachusetts federal cases

5
4
9
Michigan federal cases

1
3
4
Military cases

10
39
49
Missouri federal cases

0
4
4
Montana federal cases

0
1
1
Nebraska federal cases

0
2
2
Nevada federal cases

0
3
3
New Hampshire federal cases

0
1
1
New Jersey federal cases

0
2
2
New Mexico federal cases

0
1
1
New York federal cases

7
38
45
North Carolina federal cases

0
2
2
North Dakota federal cases

0
2
2
Ohio federal cases

1
18
19
Oklahoma federal cases

1
13
14
Oregon federal cases

1
3
4
Pennsylvania federal cases

0
9
9
Saipan federal cases

0
1
1
South Dakota federal cases
1
0
1
2
Tennessee federal cases

0
7
7
Texas federal cases
1
2
13
16
Virginia federal cases

0
2
2
Washington federal cases

4
2
6
West Virginia federal cases

0
1
1
Wisconsin federal cases

0
8
8





Total of all U.S. cases
21
748
2246
3015*
* As of November 28, 2014



Countries (non-U.S.),
(Cases in database through November 28, 2014)

Total cases Male Female Sex unkown

Unkown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Afghanistan 1 1




1
Angola 18

18



18
Australia 139 117 21 1
3
15
121
Bahamas 3 3




3
Bahrain 12 10 2



12
Bangladesh 1 1




1
Barbados 1 1



1

Belarus 3 2 1



3
Belgium 7 6 1



7
Belize 7 7




7
Bermuda 3 3




3
Botswana 2 2




2
Brunei Darussalam 1 1




1
Bulgaria 1 1




1
Cambodia 1 1




1
1
Canada 86 78 8

2
6
78
Cayman Islands 6 6




6
Chile 3 3




3
China 14 14




14
Colombia 2 2




2
Costa Rica 5 5




5
Croatia 6 6




6
Cuba 1 0 1



1
Cyprus 3 3




3
Czech Republic 4 4




4
Denmark 1 1




1
Egypt 4 4




4
Fiji 16 13 3



16
Finland 1 1




1
France 24 21 2 1

1
7
16
Germany 41 33 8

1
25
15
Ghana 6 5 1



6
Greece 14 12 2



14
Guam 2 2




2
Guatemala 3 3



3

Hong Kong 29 24 4 1



29
Hungary 3 3




3
India 113 107 5 1

4
109
Indonesia 5 5




5
Iran 1 0 1



1
Ireland 21 19 2


3
18
Isle of Man 1 0 1



1
Israel 27 27


1
1
25
Italy 27 27



1
26
Jamaica 24 21 3


5
19
Japan 21 19 2


10
11
Jersey 1 1




1
Kenya 25 17 8



25
Kosovo 1 1




1
Kuwait 1 1




1
Latvia 1 1




1
Libya 8 3 5



8
Lithuania 1 1




1
Malawi 3 3




3
Malaysia 30 25 5



30
Maldives 2 1 1



2
Mexico 7 5 2



7
Morocco 2 2




2
Namibia 5 5




5
Netherlands 6 6



1
5
Netherlands (Dutch) Antilles 2 2




2
New Caledonia 1 1




1
New Zealand 52 43 8 1
2
5
45
Nicaragua 1 1




1
Nigeria 13 10 3


1
12
North Korea 2 0 2



2
Norway 70 67 3




70
Pakistan 12 10 2

1

11
Peru 2 2




2
Philippines 9 9



1
8
Poland 1 1




1
Puerto Rico 3 3




3
Republic of (South) Korea 13 13




13
Russian Federation 2 1
1


2
Rwanda 1 1




1
Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 11




11
Saint Lucia 1 1




1
Saudi Arabia 7 7




7
Senegal 9 9




9
Serbia 4 4




4
Seychelles 1 1



1

Sierra Leone 2 1 1




2
Singapore 10 10




10
Somalia 2 1
1




2
South Africa 28 28



2
26
Spain 18 17 1

2

16
Sri Lanka 2 2



1
1
Sudan 5 4 1




5
Sweden 14 14




14
Switzerland 5 5




5
Taiwan 2 1 1



2
Tanzania 28 28




28
Thailand 6 5 1



6
Tonga 1 1




1
Trinidad and Tobago 9 6 3



9
Tunisia 1 1




1
Turkey 5 4 1




5
Turks and Caicos Islands 5 5




5
Uganda 11 9 2



11
Ukraine 1 1




1
United Arab Emirates 11 10 1



11
United Kingdom 895 686 138 71
17
104
774
United Nations court in the Hague 1 1




1
Vanuatu 1 1




1
Vietnam 9 7 2



1
8
Virgin Islands (British) 4 3 1




4
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2 2




2
Zambia 7 6
1




7
Zimbabwe 14 12 2




14
110 countries 2,124
1,765
264
95

33
196
1,895



Hans Sherrer, whose website is forejustice.org, created the Innocents Database in 1997 and continues to maintain it. The database is linked to Justice Denied's website as a courtesy to supplement Justice Denied's activities on behalf of the wrongly convicted world-wide.