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Innocents Database

Browse the Innocents Database by LAST name
 
The database index is sorted by LAST names. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.


Browse the Innocents Database by LOCATION of conviction

The database index is sorted by the LOCATION where a person was convicted. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.

Browse the Innocents Database by YEAR of exoneration

The database index is sorted by the YEAR of a person's exoneration. Click on a person whose information page you want to go to.



5,004 Cases Currently Listed in the Innocents Database

There are cases from 111 countries.

2,916 cases are from the United States

2,088 cases are from a country other than the U.S.

516 people were sentenced to death.

814 people were sentenced to life in prison.

1,809 people were convicted of a homicide related crime.

789 people were convicted of a sexual assault related crime.

170 people were posthumously exonerated by a court or a pardon.

The Innocents Database includes persons whose presumption of innocence was restored after their conviction was overturned on direct appeal or post-conviction appeal and they were not retried, persons acquitted after a retrial, and persons granted an executive or legislative pardon based on evidence of their innocence. The sources of information include official court reports, books, and newspaper and magazine articles. Each person's record in the database includes one or more sources for the information about the person's case.

If you have a question, suggestion, or correction, email innocents@forejustice.org




Information About The Cases By Range Of Years And Categories Of Convictions
(Includes the 5,004 cases in the database as of July 30, 2014)

 The chart lists the total U.S. cases with no brackets, and the total non-U.S. cases in brackets (  ).
Year of Exoneration
Homicide related*
Homicide & Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault,  Rape, or Indecent Assault Child Sexual Assault, Abuse, or Cruelty Robbery, Theft, Burglary, or Extortion
Assault
Drug
Fraud, Forgery, Embezzelment,  or Bribery
Child Abuse/Assault (non-sexual)
Violent (other)* Non-violent (other)*
Total
Prior to 1900
14 (10)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 26 (4)
43 (18)
1900-1904
1 (2)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
2 (4)
1905-1909 8 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (2) 1 (0)
10 (2)
1910-1914
8 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 0 (1)
0 (0) 1 (1)
0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 10 (4)
1915-1919 11 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (0) 18 (0)
1920-1924
25 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (0)
0 (0) 0 (1)
1 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 31 (1)
1925-1929 17 (2)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 15 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 34 (4)
1930-1934
24 (1)
0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 11 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
37 (3)
1935-1939 10 (0)
0 (0) 7 (0) 0 (0) 6 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 2 (0) 1 (2)
27 (2)
1940-1944
27 (0)
0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 8 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (3)
37 (3)
1945-1949 19 (0)
0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 4 (0)
0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (1) 1 (0)
26 (1)
1950-1954
21 (1)
1 (0) 5 (0)
0 (0) 7 (3)
0 (1) 2 (0)
4 (0)
0 (0) 1 (2) 2 (2)
43 (9)
1955-1959 16 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
0 (0) 7 (0)
0 (3) 1 (0)
2 (0) 0 (0) 14 (1) 3 (0)
45 (5)
1960-1964
11 (5)
0 (0) 0 (0)
0 (0) 7 (16)
0 (2)
1 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0) 0 (8)
54 (2)
73 (33)
1965-1969 15 (1) 0 (0) 6 (1) 0 (0) 1 (11)
0 (4) 1 (3) 1 (2) 0 (0) 3 (3) 6 (5)
33 (30)
1970-1974
16 (3)
0 (0)
1 (0) 0 (0)
2 (5)
1 (0)
0 (0) 3 (0) 0 (0) 5 (1)
6 (4)
34 (13)
1975-1979 60 (6) 1 (1)
1 (0)
0 (0) 2 (1)
0 (0) 2 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
4 (1)
72 (10)
1980-1984
47 (10)
3 (0)
10 (1)
0 (0) 3 (3)
0 (0)
0 (0)
6 (0) 0 (0) 2 (13)
3 (10)
74 (37)
1985-1989
94 (14)
0 (0)
5 (0)
2 (0)
6 (1)
2 (1)
1 (0)
12 (0)
0 (0) 1 (3)
5 (6)
128 (25)
1990-1994
82 (37)
7 (1)
27 (2)
22 (0)
17 (4)
6 (3)
2 (1)
6 (0)
0 (0) 2 (2) 9 (5)
180 (55)
1995-1999
89 (48)
14 (0)
49 (13)
24 (2)
14 (7)
10 (1)
7 (3)
12 (1)
1 (1)
4 (9) 10 (7)
234 (92)
2000-2004
185 (90)
16 (2)
94 (45)
29 (4)
22 (40)
10 (11)
62 (17)
10 (12)
2 (3)
17 (21) 27 (100)
474 (345)
2005-2009
157 (165)
23 (6)
96 (95)
33 (22)
51 (57)
17 (62)
59 (44)
24 (43)
4 (0)
58 (100) 123 (108)
645 (702)
2010-2013 156 (112)
20 (12) 74 (40)
27 (12)
33 (30)
13 (14)
46 (18)
28 (34)
2 (0) 30 (76) 68 (159)
497 (507)
2014*
35 (25)
0 (2)
6 (7)
2 (7)
2 (7)
3 (4)
11 (3)
5 (2)
1 (0) 8 (22) 15 (72)
88 (151)
Unknown date
7 (12)
0 (0) 4 (4)
2 (2)
1 (6)
1 (2)
5 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0) 1 (3)
0 (3)
21 (32)
Total cases
U.S. only
Non-U.S.
1,700
1,155
545
109
85
24
599
390
209
190
141
49
421
225
196
173
64
109
290
200
90
219
121
98
14
10
4
423
152
271
866
373
493
5,004
2,916 2,088
U.S. cases
1989-2014*
729
80
347
138
141
59
188
86
10
119
253
2,150
U.S. cases 1989-2014*
Years incarerated before exoneration
11.6 years 16.1
12.2
7.5
6.6
3.8
3.2
2.0
3.5
2.8
2.1
9.4
Years avg. for all types
Non-U.S.
1989-2014*
485
23
202
47
145
95
86
92
4
230
456
1,865
All non-U.S.  cases 1989-2014*
Years incarerated before exoneration
7.9 years
12.1
3.4
2.2
4.2
1.6
2.5
1.4
5.8
4.6
1.5
5.3
Years avg. for all types
U.S. cases
through 1988
419
5
39
1
83
4
7
35
0
32
120
745
U.S. cases through 1988
Years incarerated before exoneration
6.1 years
8.5 7.3 2.0 3.4 4.0
0.8
1.4
0
1.8
0.4
5.4
Non-U.S. cases through 1988
48
1
3
0
45
12
4
6
0
38
34
191
Non-U.S. cases through 1988
Years incarerated before exoneration
6.9 years 10
4.8
0
1.5
1.2
0.3
1.8
0
2.4
1.1
3.1
United Kingdom only cases 1989-2014* years incarerated before exoneration
9.8 years
20.0
4.4
2.5
4.0
1.0
2.1
1.7
5.3
1.5
3.2
7.0
Years avg. for all types
United Kingdom only cases up to 1997
years incarerated before exoneration
8.5 years
0
7.8
0
0.8
1.1
0.1
2.0
0
1.4
2.9
4.0
Years avg. for all types
United Kingdom only under CCRC 1997-2014*
years incarerated before exoneration
9.3 years
20.0
4.0
2.5
3.9
1.2
2.1
1.7
5.3
1.4
3.3
6.4
Years avg. for all types
* Includes cases entered in the database through July 10, 2014.
* The "Homicide" category includes all cases involving a person found responsible for a death, including first and second degree murder,  voluntary and involuntary manslaughter, vehicular homicide, etc.








* Includes all crimes involving violence or the threat of violence not included in any other category.
* Includes all crimes involving no violence or no threat of violence not included in any other category.
















U.S. cases by year of exoneration & sex
Year Total Male Female Sex  unknown
1607 1 1    
1608 1 1    
1711 24 7 17  
1712 1 0 1  
1820 2 2    
1851 1 1    
1872 1 1    
1884 1 1    
1893 3 3    
1895 1 1    
1896 1 1    
1898 3 3    
1900 1 1    
1902 1 1    
1906 3 3    
1907 3 3    
1908 2 2    
1909 2 1 1  
1911 3 3    
1912 2 2    
1913 2 2    
1914 3 3    
1915 1 1    
1916 11 10   1
1918 6 6    
1920 4 4    
1921 10 10    
1922 4 4    
1923 9 9    
1924 4 4    
1925 2 2    
1926 10 10    
1927 2 2    
1928 13 12 1  
1929 7 6 1  
1930 16 16    
1931 8 8    
1932 5 5    
1933 4 4    
1934 4 4    
1935 5 4 1  
1936 8 7 1
 
1937 7 7    
1938 3 3  
 
1939 4 4    
1940 10 10    
1941 2 2    
1942 7 7    
1943 4 4    
1944 14 14    
1945 5 4 1  
1946 8 6 2  
1947 4 4    
1948 4 4    
1949 5 4 1  
1950 10 10    
1951 13 10 3  
1952 6 6    
1953 7 7    
1954 7 6 1  
1955 2 2    
1956 7 6 1  
1957 23 18 5  
1958 5 5    
1959 8 8    
1960 3 3    
1961 46 22 8 16 
1962 6 6    
1963 10 10    
1964 8 8    
1965 7 7    
1966 3 3    
1967 2 2    
1968 10 10    
1969 11 11    
1970 2 2    
1971 3 3    
1972 10 10    
1973 7 7    
1974 12 12    
1975 24 24    
1976 10 8 2  
1977 12 11 1  
1978 17 15 2  
1979 9 8 1  
1980 20 20    
1981 12 12    
1982 13 12  
1983 16 14 2  
1984 13 13    
1985 16 16    
1986 29 28   1
1987 22 21 1  
1988 28 27 1  
1989 32 31 1  
1990 33 29 4  
1991 41 34 7  
1992 34 33 1  
1993 36 33 3  
1994 36 31 5  
1995 36 31 5  
1996 54 49 5  
1997 47 42 5  
1998 41 33 8  
1999 56 49 7  
2000 96 88 8  
2001 94 85 9  
2002 76 69 7  
2003 122 107 15  
2004 86 77 9  
2005 78 69 8 1
2006 167 154 13  
2007 130 122 8  
2008 123 108 15  
2009 147 133 14  
2010 128 114 12 2
2011 104 93 10 1
2012 126 110 16  
2013 139 123 16  
2014* 88 72 16  
Unknown 21 21 0
Total 2,916 2,606 287 23
* As of July 30, 2014



U.S. cases by state or territory where conviction occurred
(Date is when exoneration occurred. Federal court cases listed below separate from state court cases.)
State court cases Unknown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Total
Alabama
19 27 46
Alaska

3
2
5
Arizona

2
19
21
Arkansas
8
8
16
California 3
57
191
251
Colorado

2
6
8
Connecticut

3
21
24
Deleware



0
District of Columbia

8
11
19
Florida
1
38
71
110
Georgia
1
18
32
51
Hawaii

5
5
Idaho
1
3
4
Illinois

36
154
190
Indiana
7
38
45
Iowa 1
2
16
19
Kansas
3
5
8
Kentucky
5
14
19
Maine
4
4
8
Maryland 1
8
26
35
Massachusetts
43
59
102
Michigan
23
64
87
Minnesota
6
15
21
Mississippi
7
17
24
Missouri
8
36
44
Montana
0
83
83
Louisiana
23
48
71
Nebraska

3
9
12
Nevada
6
12
18
New Hampshire

0
5
5
New Jersey

25
22
47
New Mexico

7
4
11
New York
3
139
207
349
North Carolina
1
13
38
52
North Dakota

0
3
3
Ohio
22
58
81
Oklahoma
6
32
38
Oregon
6
25
31
Pennsylvania
20
51
71
Rhode Island

0
6
6
South Carolina

38
13
51
South Dakota

0
5
5
Tennessee 1
2
21
24
Texas 3
18
203
224
Utah 2
1
13
16
Vermont
2
3
5
Virginia
14
49
63
Washington
6
75
81
West Virginia

3
16
19
Wisconsin

7
41
48
Wyoming
0
5
5
Federal cases
(With location of where the conviction originated)

Unkown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Total
Alabama federal cases
0
7
7
Arizona federal cases
0
8
8
California federal cases
20
28
48
Connecticut federal cases
0
4
4
District of Columbia federal cases
4
10
14
Florida federal cases
4
13
17
Georgia federal cases

0
3
3
Hawaii federal cases

0
1
1
Indiana federal cases

0
1
1
Illinois federal cases

5
5
10
Kansas federal cases

0
2
2
Kentucky federal cases

1
1
2
Louisiana federal cases

1
6
7
Maryland federal cases

6
0
6
Massachusetts federal cases

5
4
9
Michigan federal cases

1
3
4
Military cases

10
39
49
Missouri federal cases

0
2
2
Montana federal cases

0
1
1
Nebraska federal cases

0
2
2
Nevada federal cases

0
3
3
New Hampshire federal cases

0
1
1
New Jersey federal cases

0
2
2
New Mexico federal cases

0
1
1
New York federal cases

7
33
40
North Carolina federal cases

0
2
2
North Dakota federal cases

0
2
2
Ohio federal cases

1
18
19
Oklahoma federal cases

1
13
14
Oregon federal cases

1
3
4
Pennsylvania federal cases

0
9
9
Saipan federal cases

0
1
1
South Dakota federal cases
1
0
1
2
Tennessee federal cases

0
7
7
Texas federal cases
1
2
13
16
Virginia federal cases

0
2
2
Washington federal cases

4
2
6
West Virginia federal cases

0
1
1
Wisconsin federal cases

0
6
6





Total of all U.S. cases
21
745
2150
2916*
* As of July 30, 2014



Countries (non-U.S.),
(Cases through July 30, 2014)

Total cases Male Female Sex unkown

Unkown date
Before 1989
1989-
2014
Afghanistan 1 1




1
Angola 18

18



18
Australia 138 116 21 1
3
15
120
Bahamas 3 3




3
Bahrain 12 10 2



12
Bangladesh 1 1




1
Barbados 1 1



1

Belarus 3 2 1



3
Belgium 7 6 1



7
Belize 7 7




7
Bermuda 3 3




3
Botswana 2 2




2
Brunei Darussalam 1 1




1
Bulgaria 1 1




1
Canada 85 77 8

2
6
77
Cayman Islands 6 6




6
Chile 3 3




3
China 13 13




13
Colombia 1 1




1
Costa Rica 5 5




5
Croatia 6 6




6
Cuba 1 0 1



1
Cyprus 3 3




3
Czech Republic 4 4




4
Denmark 1 1




1
Egypt 4 4




4
Fiji 16 13 3



16
Finland 1 1




1
France 24 21 2 1

1
7
16
Germany 41 33 8

1
25
15
Ghana 6 5 1



6
Greece 14 12 2



14
Guam 2 2




2
Guatemala 3 3



3

Hong Kong 27 22 4 1



27
Hungary 3 3




3
India 113 107 5 1

4
109
Indonesia 5 5




5
Iran 1 0 1



1
Ireland 19 17 2


3
16
Isle of Man 1 0 1



1
Israel 27 27


1
1
25
Italy 17 17



1
16
Jamaica 24 21 3


5
19
Japan 21 19 2


10
11
Jersey 1 1




1
Kenya 25 17 8



25
Kosovo 1 1




1
Kuwait 1 1




1
Latvia 1 1




1
Libya 8 3 5



8
Lithuania 1 1




1
Malawi 3 3




3
Malaysia 30 25 5



30
Maldives 2 1 1



2
Mexico 7 5 2



7
Morocco 2 2




2
Namibia 5 5




5
Netherlands 6 6



1
5
Netherlands (Dutch) Antilles 2 2




2
New Caledonia 1 1




1
New Zealand 49 40 8 1
2
5
42
Nicaragua 1 1




1
Nigeria 13 10 3


1
12
North Korea 2 0 2



2
Norway 65 62 3




65
Pakistan 12 10 2

1

11
Peru 2 2




2
Philippines 9 9



1
8
Poland 1 1




1
Puerto Rico 3 3




3
Republic of (South) Korea 13 13




13
Russian Federation 2 1
1


2
Rwanda 1 1




1
Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 11




11
Saint Lucia 1 1




1
Saudi Arabia 7 7




7
Senegal 9 9




9
Serbia 4 4




4
Seychelles 1 1



1

Sierra Leone 1 1




1
Singapore 9 9




9
Somalia 2 2




2
South Africa 28 28



2
26
Spain 18 17 1

2

16
Sri Lanka 2 2



1
1
Sudan 5 4 1




5
Sweden 13 13




13
Switzerland 5 5




5
Taiwan 2 1 1



2
Tanzania 26 26




26
Thailand 6 5 1



6
Tonga 1 1




1
Trinidad and Tobago 7 6 1



7
Tunisia 1 1




1
Turkey 5 4 1




5
Turks and Caicos Islands 5 5




5
Uganda 11 9 2



11
Ukraine 1 1




1
United Arab Emirates 11 10 1



11
United Kingdom 892 684 137 71
16
99
777
United Nations court in the Hague 1 1




1
Vanuatu 1 1




1
Vietnam 9 7 2



1
8
Virgin Islands (British) 4 3 1




4
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2 2




2
Zambia 7 6
1




7
Zimbabwe 14 12 2




14
110 countries 2,088
1,732
261
95

32
191
1,865




Hans Sherrer, whose website is forejustice.org, created the Innocents Database in 1997 and continues to maintain it. The database is linked to Justice Denied's website as a courtesy to supplement Justice Denied's activities on behalf of the wrongly convicted world-wide.